The Czech Republic underwent a period of rapid financial innovation and liberalisation, with unsuccessful exchange rate pegging and monetary targets replaced by inflation targets from 1998.
|Years||Targets and attainment||Classification|
|1993-95||currency pegged to basket with narrow margins set by central bank (but private forex market with some autonomy); monetary targets overshot 2 years out of 3; monetary policy operations initially focused on bank reserves, from 1995 on short-term interest rates||augmented exchange rate fix AERF|
|1996-97||exchange rate band widened February 1996, peg abandoned May 1997; monetary targets undershot 1996, met 1997; monetary instruments now mainly indirect; rapid financial market development||loosely structured discretion LSD|
|1998-2005||declining inflation targets met or near-met except for undershoot 2003 (inflation expectations also fall briefly below target band); main monetary instrument is repo rate; changes to inflation targeting procedures||loose converging inflation targeting LCIT|
|2006-17||inflation targets (lower from 2010) met, except overshoot 2007-8 and undershoot 2009, when inflation expectations returned quickly to the target zone, also undershoots 2013-16 when medium-term expectations remained anchored; initial aim of entering ERM2 and then adopting euro set aside; occasional forex intervention; exchange rate floor November 2013 to April 2017, as additional instrument in IT (instead of QE) to avoid deflation, with significant forex intervention in last few months||full inflation targeting FIT|
Selected IMF references: RED 1993 pp36-7; RED 1994 pp25-6, 33-7, 46-7; SBS 1995 pp52-6; SI 1998 chIV; SR 2001 pp22-5; SR 2004 p7; SR 2005 p12; SR 2010 p34; SR 2011 p14; SR 2014 pp5-6, 21; SR 2016 pp6, 10-12, 38-42; SI 2017 pp2-4; SR 2017 pp13-15.
Additional sources: Beblavy (2007a); Beblavy (2007b).
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