Pakistan has had a slow, erratic and unfinished process of financial modernisation, with a range of objectives, no formal targets, and instruments becoming effective and indirect only towards the end of the period.

Years Targets and attainment Classification
1974-81 exchange rates fixed by central bank, other banks trade only at those rates; monetary policy operated largely by direct credit controls; recurring monetary financing of fiscal deficits augmented exchange rate fix AERF
1982-2014 exchange rate more or less managed, with frequent changes, with eye initially more to competitiveness but later more to inflation control; exchange rate continues for many years to be largely fixed (at changing rates), but forex market liberalised towards end of period; monetary policy operated until 1992 largely by imprecise direct credit controls, then slow and erratic shift towards indirect instruments with regular Treasury bill auctions from 1991 (but interest rate corridor and clear policy rate only from 2015); monetary financing of government, directly by the central bank and later also by the commercial banks, remains important; banking system (nationalised in 1974, some privatisation from early 1990s) highly concentrated; increases in central bank independence repeatedly discussed but implementation half-hearted; frequent slippages in both stabilisation policy and structural reforms; monetary policy objectives include growth, competitiveness and inflation, but latter comes to dominate in final decade loosely structured discretion LSD

Selected IMF references: RED 1976 pp33-6, 67-8; RED 1979 pp70-2; SR 1979 pp2-3; RED 1981 pp36-7; RED 1985 pp49-56, 82-4; RED 1988 pp55-6; RED 1989 pp63-5, 68-71; RED 1991 pp128-34; RED 1992 pp32-3; RED 1995 pp35-8; RED 1997 pp4-5, 30, 61-2; SR 2000 pp6, 17-21, 40-41; SISA 2002 ch, IV; SISA 2004 pp22-3; SR 2009 pp9, 16; SR 2012 p10; SR 2015 p12.

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