Jordan initially fixed its exchange rate to the SDR, with monetary policy largely passive, but relaxed that as it liberalised in the late 1980s (and underwent a currency crisis); by the early 1990s it was pegging formally to the SDR but informally to the USD, and that became a firm exchange rate target from the mid-1990s.
|Years||Targets and attainment||Classification|
|1974-84||exchange rate pegged to USD then from February 1975 formally to SDR, operationally more fix than target with actual margins much narrower than formal limits of 2.25%; elements of fiscal dominance; monetary policy instruments mainly direct, policy passive 1970s but more active (pro-growth) 1980s||augmented exchange rate fix AERF|
|1985-90||currency now allowed to move up to 6% against SDR parity; financial liberalisation (including forex market) and move towards indirect monetary instruments accelerated by currency crisis 1988; after brief float currency repegged to basket May 1989, repegged formally to SDR after large devaluation October 1990||loosely structured discretion LSD|
|1991-95||formal peg to SDR but informal peg to USD; forex market more or less completely liberalised by end of this period; main monetary instrument becomes auction rate on central bank CDs||loose exchange rate targeting LERT|
|1996-2017||hard peg to USD de facto, treated as the policy in IMF Staff Reports and widely understood as a hard peg; monetary policy clearly geared to maintaining that peg, regarded as ‘keystone of financial stability’ (SR 2012), by controlling short term interest rates from 2000 within corridor, relative to US federal funds rate||full exchange rate targeting FERT|
Selected IMF references: RED 1983 pp27-9; SR 1986 p4; Background Information on Selected Aspects of Adjustment and Growth Strategy 1995, chV and pp66-7; SR 1995 pp10, 20; SR 1997 pp8, 15; SR 2012 pp12, 21; SR 2017 pp18-19.
Additional source: Maziad (2011).
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