Egypt moved gradually from a command economy to a more market economy, in monetary and financial as well as other areas, with exchange rate controls giving way to loose exchange rate targeting followed by a heavily managed float, but the plan to move to inflation targeting remains unrealised.

Years Targets and attainment Classification
1974-76 multiple exchange rates; banking system almost entirely nationalised, directed to finance state-determined investments; monetary policy instruments direct multiple direct controls MDC
1977-91 multiple exchange rates frequently changed and adjusted, never quite unified; halting moves from command economy of 1960s and early 1970s towards more market economy, but monetary instruments remain mostly direct, forex markets heavily controlled; major entry of small mainly foreign banks; recurring fiscal dominance; rising dollarisation unstructured discretion UD
1992-2002 exchange rate finally unified and pegged de facto to USD (but depreciations 2000-01); monetary instruments become mainly indirect and policy focused on exchange rate stability loose exchange rate targeting LERT
2003-14 exchange rate formally floated but more or less heavily managed; monetary instruments indirect; central bank has some more autonomy, but recurring monetary financing of high budget deficits; medium-term plan is to move towards inflation targeting, but crucial steps (including genuine exchange rate float) never quite taken loosely structured discretion LSD

Selected IMF references: RED 1975 section IV.1 and pp47-8; RED 1978 section V.1 and pp42-6; SR 1989 2-4, 24-8; RED 1992 pp33-4, 47-52; SR 1992 pp17-18; RED 2000 section IV.B; SR 2005 pp13-15; SR 2006 pp14-16; SR 2015 p10.

Additional sources: Selim (2011); Al-Mashat (2011).

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